According to Spencer, the state is based on the conscience of its citizens, not on a natural sense of Loyalty. Suppose that his theory was correct, but whether the sense of Devotion to the sovereign, i.e., the natural human tendency of anyone to read in my life and serve him forever? In essence, it is human nature to serve a person (that is, a monarch) without thinking about the personality of this revered person, who temporarily owning a scepter becomes a ruler on the throne in the sanctuary erected by our hearts. A few years ago, Spencer's theory, spread by his disciples, made a stormy and indelible impression on the Japanese, who are supporters of the idea of the need for unconditional Devotion to the Emperor.02.10.2016 16:38
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according to Spencer, the state is based on the conscience of its citizens, not on a natural sense of Loyalty. Suppose that his theory was correct, but whether the sense of Devotion to the sovereign, i.e., the natural human tendency of anyone to read in my life and serve him forever? In essence, it is human nature to serve a person (that is, a monarch) without thinking about the personality of this revered person, who temporarily owning a scepter becomes a ruler on the throne in the sanctuary erected by our hearts. A few years ago, Spencer's theory, spread by his disciples, made a stormy and indelible impression on the Japanese, who are supporters of the idea of the need for unconditional Devotion to the Emperor.
Spencer's students built their straight arguments without any sophistic wit and scholastic convolutions. Of the few conclusions that they made, they came to the conclusion that: "to serve two masters without not to despise both, it is impossible", because you need to "give to God - God, and Caesar – Caesar." But did Socrates not tell us that we should fearlessly resist and not give in one iota to the adversary, but instead, with equal Devotion and composure, obey our earthly master, that is, the state? Socrates served and died for his state. But alas, the day when any state will become strong thanks to the conscience of its citizens is unknown! Bushido required samurai preporucena honor his Lord or the Emperor. That is, using a quote by Shakespeare's Thomas Maubray (84):
"I will throw myself, sire, at your feet.
Though life take one you can look,
Don't power you to cover me with shame.
I'll give you my life as my duty commands,
But my honor is mine alone."
According to Bushido, a man who forgot about the sense of dignity, performed whims, quirks or unjust orders of his master, was considered dishonored. Such a person the samurai was called a "sin" (nei-shin) - "the Butler" because instead of service, he was engaged in administering to, i.e., ingratiation, or "sin" (so-shin) – "plebeian" who tried to get into the confidence or to become a "pet" his master through low servility. These two epithet reflects the essence of those samurai believed conscious slaves who love their servile bondage, and who sees his service to the Lord in the form of bootlicking, ignoring the Devotion, based on the dictates of a noble heart
Devotion to the master was also expressed in pointing out to him the infidelity of his decisions, just as count Kent warned his king (85). But with all this, the samurai were obliged to obey the orders of his master, in any case, even if he failed to persuade him to cancel the unfair decision. Often, protesting against the decision of his Lord, and because of this, caught between the duty of loyalty and the duty of fairness, the samurai committed seppuku.
The meaning of life of the samurai was the service. It was his debt of honor, so the upbringing and education of a samurai was built with this in mind.
X. Samurai education
The main purpose in training of a samurai was the development of an appropriate nature. At the same time such qualities as prudence and desire to polemize were excluded. However, gross ignorance was not allowed either. Since the samurai were the highest class, ethics, his education was considered extremely important. Possession of a developed mind was appreciated, but the concept of "ti" (chi) - "prudence" meant primarily wisdom, not conformism (adaptability, passive acceptance of the existing order of things, the prevailing views, the lack of their own position, unscrupulous and uncritical following the opinion of the majority, etc.).
The cornerstone of the Bushido was " ti "(wisdom)," Jin "(compassion) and" Yu " (courage). The essence of the samurai was in action. Philosophical reflections and scientific delights him were not to what. Science admitted only in part, which could be useful in military Affairs, and philosophy was considered the lot of the monks, and valued only because had methods of development of the spirit. In the words of one English poet, the samurai had to know that "not persuasion make a man a man, and the man - beliefs." With the help of philosophy and literature samurai were joined to wisdom, but you cannot say that he paid them a lot of time. Literature was not a part of compulsory education, it was practiced in free time for the soul, and philosophy was resorted to only as an additional means for character education, because it does not solve current military or social problems.
It is quite clear that the most important in military Affairs was the training of martial arts: fencing, archery, Ju-Jutsu ("the art of avoiding attacks" or "the art of fighting without weapons." Primas'. – W. E. Griffis) or "yawara" (yawara), horse riding, spear, tactics, etc. Besides the important role played by art that was not directly connected with military Affairs, for example: calligraphy, ethics, poetry and history. From listed I arts, Ju-Jutsu and calligraphy will allocate especially. In Japan, the ability to write beautifully elevated to the rank of art. Our written signs-hieroglyphs-are in fact miniature drawings, so they have not only artistic value, but also reflect the inner world of man.
Ju-Jutsu can be briefly described as the art of attacking or defending without weapons and without the use of brute force. So to grab or hit the opponent on certain parts of the body to become immobile or incapable of moving on. In General, the goal of JIU-jitsu humane, not to kill but only to disarm for some time of the enemy.
A significant drawback in the training of the samurai, in my opinion, was the lack of arithmetic. This was due to the fact that it was not necessary, because in times of feudal wars complex calculations were simply not required. But not only for this reason, arithmetic has not been studied. A noble warrior does not need wealth because he is not afraid of poverty. As mentioned Wintidy (86):
"...you're a warrior - so poor;
Giving you is a good thing: you
Living among the dead; your lands -
Don Quixote was proud of his rusty spear and old horse, not of his gold and estates. The samurai also shared the idea of their somewhat grotesque colleague From La Mancha. They despised money, as well as all the ways and methods of earning them, and even more so accumulation. They will never appreciate the gold and not to adorn themselves with them. There was even such an expression, reflecting the extreme moral decline of the state :" their rulers love gold, and the soldiers are afraid of death." Generosity was praised, greed and stinginess were condemned. "Only a stupid person," says one famous Japanese saying,"can complain about poverty, because wealth is an obstacle to the acquisition of wisdom." Therefore, the samurai often did not know how to count because they were not necessary in the conduct of financial Affairs. Even talking about money was considered not worthy, but the ignorance of the person of the value of different coins was a sign of noble origin. The ability to perform simple arithmetic was considered sufficient to count the number of troops or distribute fiefdoms, and cases requiring complex calculations were entrusted to the less noble people. In many feudal possession of public finances was governed by samurai of low rank, or priests.
Despite the fact that the samurai had to understand the need of funds for the war, they had to strive to increase their personal income. But at any moment money might be required for military needs, and Bushido required the samurai to lead a Thrifty and frugal life in peacetime. The wastefulness was considered a lack of exposure and even useless to the service, there is a significant flaw in the character, so samurai orders provided a rather Spartan lifestyle.
In the great Roman Empire merchants and mensarii (87) flourished because the financial system was given national importance. But the wealth and love of luxury has led to the development of Roman citizens a sense of greed and corruption. Apparently based on this idea, any business activity for the samurai was forbidden. It was considered unworthy and discrediting the honor of the samurai. Bushido saw the root of evil in hoarding. You can get rid of a thousand and one problems, if not to fall into dependence on luxury. This probably is the explanation of the unique fact that among the samurai there was no corruption. But alas, times change and the first seeds plutocracy now give their the first shoots and on Japanese earth.
The development of logic, which is currently taught primarily through mathematics, the samurai was by reading philosophical treatises and discussions. The samurai took a little abstract constructs and inferences because the main purpose of the training, as I mentioned, was the education of the spirit. Far from life knowledge were recognized, but preference was given to the urgent. From what bacon wrote (88): "science is done for fun, for decoration and for skill. Fun is found all over in solitude, an ornament in conversation, and skill - in orders and the management of it" ("Reading & writing as moral activities", bacon) - Bushido favored "for skill", because it was necessary samurai "in the regulations and guidance." Thus, discard have studied only those science and art, which can be to apply on practice in life, for example, for leadership public Affairs or for self-perfection. "Knowledge without skill is useless, "Confucius taught,"and skill without knowledge is dangerous."