Promulgated November 3, 1946 came into force on 3 may 194702.10.2016 17:50
We, the Japanese people, acting through our duly elected representatives in Parliament and determined to ensure for ourselves and for our descendants the fruits of peaceful cooperation with all Nations and the blessing of freedom for our entire country, determined to prevent the horrors of a new war as a result of the actions of governments, proclaim that the people are vested with sovereign authority and establish this Constitution. State power is based on the unwavering trust of the people, its authority comes from the people, its powers are exercised by the representatives of the people, and its benefits are enjoyed by the people. This is a principle common to all mankind, and this Constitution is based on it. We reject and revoke all constitutions, laws ordinances, and rescripts in conflict herewith to the Constitution..
We, the Japanese people, desire eternal peace and are conscious of the lofty ideals that define human relations; we are determined to ensure our security and existence by relying on justice and the honour of the peace-loving peoples of the world. We want to take pride of place in the international community, which seeks to preserve peace and to permanently destroy tyranny and slavery, oppression and intolerance on the globe. We firmly believe that all the peoples of the world have the right to a peaceful life free from fear and want.
We are convinced that no state should be guided only by its own interests) while ignoring the interests of other States, that the principles of political morality are universal and that it is the duty of all States that maintain their own sovereignty and maintain equal relations with other States to follow these principles.
We, the Japanese people, swear by the honour of our country that, with all our efforts, we will achieve these lofty ideals and goals.
Chapter 1. Emperor
Article 1. The Emperor is a symbol of the state and the unity of the people, his status is determined by the will of the people, which owns sovereign power.
Article 2. The Imperial throne is dynastic and is inherited in accordance with the law on the Imperial family adopted by the Parliament.
Article 3. All actions of the Emperor relating to the Affairs of the state can be taken only with the Council and approval of the Cabinet, and the Cabinet is responsible for them.
Article 4. The Emperor shall carry out only such acts relating to the Affairs of the state as provided for in this Constitution and shall not be vested with powers related to the exercise of state power.
The Emperor, in accordance with the law, may entrust someone to carry out his actions relating to the Affairs of the state.
Article 5. If the law on the Imperial family establishes a Regency, the Regent shall act in the Affairs of the state on behalf of the Emperor. In this case, the first paragraph of the previous article applies.
Article 6. The Emperor appoints the Prime Minister on the proposal of the Parliament.The Emperor appoints the chief justice of the Supreme court on the recommendation of the Cabinet.
Article 7. The Emperor, on the advice and approval of the Cabinet, carries out on behalf of the people the following actions relating to the Affairs of the state:
promulgation of amendments to the Constitution, laws, government decrees and treaties; convening of Parliament; dissolution of the house of representatives: announcement of General parliamentary elections;
confirmation of the appointment and resignation of Ministers of state and other officials in accordance with the law, as well as the powers and credentials of ambassadors and envoys;
confirmation of General and partial amnesties, commutation and deferral of sentences and restoration of rights; awards;
confirmation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic instruments in accordance with the law; reception of foreign ambassadors and envoys; implementation of the ceremonial.
Article 8. No property may be transferred to or received by the Imperial family, and no gifts may be accepted by it except in accordance with a resolution of Parliament.
Chapter II. The renunciation of war
Article 9. In the earnest pursuit of international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people for eternity renounce war as the sovereign right of the nation, as well as the threat or use of armed force as a means of resolving international disputes.
In order to achieve the objective set out in the previous paragraph, no land, naval and air forces, as well as other means of war, will ever be established. The right of the state to wage war is not recognized.
Chapter III. Rights and duties of the people
Article 10. The necessary conditions for Japanese citizenship are determined by law.
Article 11. The people enjoy all basic human rights without hindrance. These fundamental human rights, guaranteed to the people by this Constitution, are granted to present and future generations as inviolable eternal rights.
Article 12. The freedoms and rights guaranteed to the people by this Constitution must be upheld by the continuous efforts of the people. The people must refrain from any abuse of these freedoms and rights and bear permanent responsibility for their use in the interests of public welfare.
Article 13. All people should be respected as individuals. Their right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness is, because it does not violate public welfare, the highest concern in the field of legislation and other public Affairs.
Article 14. All persons are equal before the law and may not be discriminated against politically, economically or socially on the grounds of race, religion, sex, social status or origin.
The this peerage and other aristocratic institutes are not recognized.No privileges shall be granted in the award of honorary titles, awards or distinctions, and any such award shall be valid only for the life of the person who has it now or may receive it in the future.
Article 15. The people have the inalienable right to elect and remove public officials.
All public officials are servants of the entire society, not of any one part of it.
In the election of public officials, universal adult suffrage is guaranteed. In any election, the secrecy of the vote shall not be violated. The voter shall not be held responsible, either publicly or privately, for his or her choice.
Article 16. Everyone has the right to file a peaceful petition for damages, for the removal of public officials, for the enactment, repeal or amendment of laws, decrees or regulations, as well as for other matters; no one may be subjected to any discrimination for filing such petitions.
Article 17. Everyone may, in accordance with the law, claim damages from the state or local public authorities if the damage is caused to him by the unlawful acts of a public official.
Article 18. No one may be held in slavery in any form. "Forced labour is prohibited except as a punishment for a crime.
Article 19. Freedom of thought and conscience must not be violated.
Article 20. Freedom of religion is guaranteed to all. No religious organization should receive any privileges from the state and cannot exercise political power.
No one may be forced to participate in any religious act, celebration, ceremony or rite.
The state and its bodies should refrain from conducting religious education and any religious activity.
Article 21. Freedom of Assembly and Association, as well as freedom of speech, the press and all other forms of expression, are guaranteed.
No censorship is allowed, the secrecy of correspondence should not be violated.
Article 22. Everyone enjoys the freedom of choice and change of residence, as well as the choice of profession, as long as it does not violate public welfare.
The freedom of everyone to travel abroad and the freedom to renounce their citizenship should not be violated.
Article 23. Freedom of scientific activity is guaranteed.
Article 24. Marriage is concluded only with the mutual consent of both parties and exists on the basis of mutual cooperation, which is based on the equality of the rights of husband and wife.
Laws on the choice of spouse, marital property rights, inheritance, residence, divorce and other matters relating to marriage and family should be based on the principle of personal dignity and gender equality.
Article 25. Everyone has the right to a minimum level of healthy and cultural life.
In all spheres of life, the state should make efforts to raise and further develop social welfare, social security, and public health.
Article 26. Everyone has an equal right to education in accordance with their abilities in the manner prescribed by law.
Everyone must ensure, in accordance with the law, that children in their care receive compulsory education. Compulsory education is free of charge.
Article 27. Everyone has the right to work and the obligation to work. Wages, working hours, rest and other working conditions shall be determined by law. Exploitation of children is prohibited.
Article 28. The right of workers to organize and the right to collective bargaining and other collective action are guaranteed.
Article 29. Ownership should not be violated. The right to property is determined by law so that it does not conflict with social welfare.
Private property can be used in the public interest for fair compensation.
Article 30. The population is subject to taxes in accordance with the law.
Article 31. No one may be deprived of life or liberty or subjected to any punishment except in accordance with the procedure established by law.
Article 32. No one shall be deprived of the right to be tried in court.